• STD

A STD is a “sexually transmitted disease,” and a STI is a “sexually transmitted infection,” and they are sometimes interchangeable. An example from stdcheck.com is HPV (human papillomavirus), … which may start as a transmitted infection that may or may not turn into a disease like cervical cancer in women and throat cancer in men.

Some prevention includes the proper use of condoms and dental dams during sex. Not all STIs have symptoms.

The sourced articles below should provide you more STD/STI information such as symptoms, who’s at risk, prevention and when to seek testing from a healthcare professional. Also, see the SexEd.net Topic HIV/AIDS.

  1. WHO Alarmed At STD Spread In The Era Of Dating Apps

    “Every day, there are more than 1 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among people aged 15-49 years, according to data released today by the World Health Organization. This amounts to more than 376 million new cases annually of four infections – chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. ‘We’re seeing a concerning lack of progress in stopping the spread of sexually transmitted infections worldwide,’ said Dr Peter Salama, Executive Director for Universal Health Coverage and the Life-Course at WHO. ‘This is a wake-up call for a concerted effort to ensure everyone, everywhere can access the services they need to prevent and treat these debilitating diseases.'”

    World Health Organization, who.int, 6/6/2019

  2. The Oral And Genital Herpes Viruses Are Having ‘Sex.’ The Result Is Worrisome.

    “There’s a lot more ‘sex’ going on between the oral and genital herpes viruses than scientists previously thought, according to a new study. The study, published April 23 in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, found that the two herpes simplex viruses — known as HSV-1 and HSV-2 — mix their genetic material together, or ‘recombine,’ more often than thought. (HSV-1 classically causes oral infections and HSV-2 causes genital infections.) … As a result, the genital herpes virus (HSV-2) continues to evolve, which could have negative implications for public health, the researchers said. For example, HSV-2 might evolve in a way that makes it resistant to current antiviral drugs.The ability of HSV-2 to mix with HSV-1 could also be a barrier to the development of a vaccine against herpes, which doesn’t yet exist, [study co-author Dr. Alex] Greninger added.”

    Rachael Rettner, livescience.com, 5/3/2019

  3. Why Sex-Related Infections Are Spreading Again

    “In the U.S., cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis — three of the most common, treatable sexually transmitted diseases — jumped by more than 200,000 in 2017 to almost 2.3 million, a record. With syphilis, the annual rate of reported cases in the U.S. has almost doubled in recent years, to 31.4 cases per 100,000 people in 2017 from 15.9 per 100,000 in 2012. The trend with syphilis has also been seen in such countries as France, Belgium, Ireland and the U.K. In Australia, reported cases of gonorrhea climbed 63 percent from 2012 to 2016, while they surged sixfold in France and almost fivefold in Denmark from 2007 to 2016.”

    Jason Gale, Bloomberg, washingtonpost.com, 3/4/2019

  4. Here’s Why Sexually Transmitted Infection Rates Are So High, According To STI Experts

    “All of this sounds bad, but does it mean that STIs are out of control? Not necessarily. The dramatic rise in infections is actually a two-pronged issue made up of both increased disease and better detection. As STI experts, we see a few possible contributing factors for each part of the equation that deserve attention. … Ultimately, the resounding message from health providers should be: Enjoy yourself and protect yourself.”

    Erika Samoff, PhD, MPH, and Victoria Mobley, MD, MPH, self.com, 1/8/2019

  5. Record High Number Of STD Infections In U.S., As Prevention Funding Declines

    “‘The U.S. continues to have the highest STD rates in the industrialized world,’ says David Harvey, executive director of the National Coalition of STD Directors, ‘and it preys on the most vulnerable among us.’ … Harvey argues the root of the problem is that federal funding to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases has dropped by roughly 40 percent in the past 15 years, which has choked off state and local programs. He called on Congress to appropriate $70 million immediately to address the crisis.”

    Richard Harris, npr.org, 8/28/2018

  6. 17 Questions You’ve Had About STDs, Answered

    “… Fred Wyand, director of communications at the American Sexual Health Association, explains everything you need to know about STDs.”

    Hannah Orenstein, seventeen.com, 11/29/2017

  7. Do You Have an STD? You’re Not The Only One

    “If you do have symptoms, you may notice soreness, discharge, itching, and burning pain when passing urine. If you notice any of these, it’s important to see your doctor: if left untreated, these can lead to more serious health conditions. Chlamydia and gonorrhea, for instance, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, or even infertility, in women.”

    Chris Iliades, MD, Reviewed by Kacy Church, MD, everydayhealth.com, 11/7/2017

  8. New STD Cases Hit Record High In US, CDC Says

    “Only those three STDs and HIV are required by law to be reported to the CDC by physicians. When you include herpes and more of the dozens of diseases which can be transmitted sexually but which are not tracked, the CDC estimates there are more than 20 million new cases of STDs in the United States each year. At least half occur in young people ages 15 to 24.”

    Sandee LaMotte, cnn.com, 9/28/2017

  9. What You Need To Know About STDs

    “Sexually transmitted infections have been around for thousands of years. The genital areas are generally moist and warm environments – ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses, and bacteria.”

    Christian Nordqvist, Reviewed by Janet Brito, PhD, LCSW, CST, medicalnewstoday.com, last updated 8/18/2017

  10. How Is An STD Test Performed?

    “An STD test, or sexually transmitted disease test, may be performed for one or more of the many diseases that can be contracted through contact with bodily fluids during sexual activity. There are many tests, each of which is specific for a particular STD.”

    Bridget Coila, livestrong.com, 8/14/2017

  11. 5 STI Myths That Just Won’t Die

    “Half the human population gets an STI at some point in their life, and a lot of them don’t know it.”

    Suzannah Weiss, glamour.com, 4/17/2017

  12. Treatments For Specific Types Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases And Sexually Transmitted Infections (STDs/STIs)

    Treatments for Specific Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Online Resource, nichd.nih.gov, last reviewed 1/31/2017

  13. This Is How Often You Need To Get Tested For STDs, Based On Your Relationship Status

    “But even if you’re symptom free, you should know how often you need to get tested (and then actually do it). It’s not always so clear—and that’s why we put together this handy guide to help you know when to go, based on what’s going on in your love life.”

    Zahra Barnes, self.com, 10/21/2016

  14. STI Vs. STD

    “Technically, STIs and STDs differ– Having an STI means that an individual has an infection, but that it has not yet developed into a disease. Take HPV (human papillomavirus) for instance: Typically a woman with HPV does not have any symptoms, but she carries the virus. She has an STI; but if she develops cervical cancer from HPV, she now has an STD since cancer is a disease.”

    Online Resource, stdcheck.com, 6/23/2015