There are many ways to describe rape based on type of perpetrator or perpetuators, and how it was perpetrated.
Although the following types of rape are just as important as the other sub-topics, either research of resources on the subject did not show enough recent articles to justify the following from having their own sub-topic page or they are broader sub-categories to supplement the Rape topic:
1. Stranger rape – “sexual assault by an assailant upon a person he or she does not know.”1
2. Gang rape/Multiple rape – commonly called “gang rape,” this occurs when two or more people commit rape in the same incident, each taking turns assaulting the victim.”2
3. Women who rape
4. Foreign object rape
- Sexual Consent
“Sexual violence doesn’t happen in one single way. There doesn’t need to be a weapon involved and the victim doesn’t need to have fought back, screamed, or said ‘no’ repeatedly in order for it to count as rape or sexual assault. Most sexual assaults don’t happen by strangers in dark alleyways. Often, it’s someone the victim knows or even a romantic partner. If you or someone you know has experienced this type of violence, you’re not alone, and help is available.”
Planned Parenthood Federation, plannedparenthood.org, accessed on 10/15/2018
- Overcoming The Stigma Of Sexual Assault: Know The Facts
“Myth #3: Only vaginal penetration counts as sexual assault. Fact: Any forced or coerced sexual activity can be sexual assault.
Sexual assault refers to a broad group of crimes. Rape is just one type of sexual assault. Other forms of sexual assault include:
[1.] Groping, fondling, or touching a person’s body without their consent …
[2.] Making sexually suggestive threats …
[3.] Medical sexual assault. This is when a doctor touches a person against their will in an attempt at sexual gratification. …
Rape does not require vaginal penetration. Most sexual assault advocates urge victims and survivors of rape to weigh their own experiences rather than relying on a single definition. This is because state laws, federal definitions, and medical definitions vary.
Generally, penetration or attempted penetration of any orifice counts as rape. Rape might involve forced anal or oral penetration. Rape could also include forcing a person to penetrate another person. Forced or coerced sexual contact with a person’s genitals is also rape.”
Zawn Villine, goodtherapy.org, 6/22/2018
- Sexual Consent
“‘Saying ‘yes’ now doesn’t mean “yes” in the future
Giving consent for one type of sexual activity, one time, doesn’t mean giving consent for going further or doing that type of activity again, or any sexual contact at all.
For example, agreeing to kiss someone doesn’t mean you’ve said ‘yes’ to someone taking your clothes off. Likewise, giving or receiving oral sex with someone in the past doesn’t mean that you want to do that again or have any sexual contact at all with that person in the future.
You can change your mind!
You can say ‘no’ (withdraw your consent) at any stage – you don’t have to have a reason. The best way to know whether you’re both comfortable with any sexual activity is to talk about it, and get a very clear and enthusiastic ‘YES’!”
AVERT, avert.org, 6/15/2018
- Multiple Perpetrator Sexual Assault: The Relationship Between The Number Of Perpetrators, Blame Attribution, And Victim Resistance
“In addition to comparisons between lone and MPSA [multiple perpetrator sexual assault], there has been some research examining differences within MPSA groups. Reports indicate that the most common number of perpetrators in MPSA cases range from two to three offenders (da Silva, Woodhams, & Harkins, 2014; Horvath & Kelly, 2009; Porter & Alison, 2006). While it could be argued that duos should be categorized as groups and studied as such, social psychologists have found that dyads are not necessarily subjected to the same group level phenomena as groups comprised of more than two individuals (Moreland, 2010; Williams, 2010), such as majority and minority influence, socialization, and alliance formation.”
Yi Jin Genevieve Lim, Student Theses, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, cuny.edu, 12/2017
- Sexual Victimization Perpetrated By Women: Federal Data Reveal Surprising Prevalence
“This article examines female sexual perpetration in the U.S. To do so, we analyzed data from four large-scale federal agency surveys conducted independently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Bureau of Justice Statistics in 2008 through 2013. We found these data to contradict the common belief that female sexual perpetration is rare.”
Lara Stemple, Andrew Flores, Ilan H. Meyer, sciencedirect.com, 5/2017
- A Social Problem: Individual And Group Rape
“Gang rape is driven by complex processes, including interpersonal dynamics of the group members, the social rules of the group, and the arrogance of the group and the typically shared responsibility of group contexts, which minimizes or removes the feeling of guilt; on the contrary, the aggressions of single men reflect the attacker’s disease. The hostility of an aggressor within a group, in fact, em-phasizes a sense of social identity, which at the same time facilitates de-identifica-tion and loss of the sense of identity and personal responsibility …”
Nicola Malizia, Advances in Applied Sociology, scirp.org, 3/7/2017
- The Hidden Epidemic Of Men Who Are Raped By Women
“[UCLA law professor Lara] Stemple’s new, wide-ranging study presents the results of the CDC’s most recent phone survey, which found that 68.6 percent of men who report sexual victimization describe female perpetrators. Meanwhile, among men who reported being made to penetrate—”the form of nonconsensual sex men are much more likely to experience in their lifetime,” according to the study—79.2 percent cited female perpetrators.”
Steven Blum, vice.com, 11/29/2016
- See How Your State Legally Defines Rape (Or Doesn’t)
“More than a dozen states define rape as California does and list nonconsensual object penetration, oral sex, and anal sex as different crimes. Additionally, some of these states classify each crime as a different level of felony—or even misdemeanor—which creates a hierarchy of penalties dependent on the form of penetration.”
Samantha Cowan, takepart.com, 6/29/2016
- What Drives Young Men To Gang Rape Girls?
“Dr. N. G. Berrill is forensic psychologist and the Executive Director of New York Forensics, a group practice that gives evaluations for the court on criminal matters, including sexual abuse. He explains that the perpetrators of gang rape and lone attackers typically have very different psychological profiles. ‘With a group, it’s usually teenage boys. There are cases like this around the country where, if not a rape, it’s a group beating or they’re setting homeless people on fire,’ Dr. Berrill says. ‘Teenage boys in a group can be the most dangerous human beings on the planet.’ According to him, there’s something about their social psychology that might contextualize otherwise inexplicable, violent gang behavior.”
Diana Tourjée, vice.com, 1/11/2016
- What Does It Mean When Women Perpetrate Gang Rapes?
“Women in male-dominated environments survive and thrive not by challenging prevailing norms, but by adapting to them, including by expressing aggression and dominance. Cohen’s first-person descriptions of the ways in which women combatants participate in gang rapes of other women were remarkably similar to Sanday’s descriptions of women who “join” fraternities, although further down the spectrum of violence. Women immersed in rape-prone cultures often collude with rapists for protection and status. Sanday found that not all fraternal societies rape, although in those that do, rape is clearly a way to establish social dominance.”
Soraya Chemaly, womensmediacenter.com, 12/16/2013
1. dictionary.com, accessed on 10/15/2018
2. renew-inc.org, accessed on 10/14/2018